filippos wrote:...Can you give the sources of peer reviewed research findings that conclude absolutely that smokers damage others through their habit...
It is not possible to conclude this absolutely
. The studies are invariably epidemiological and such studies cannot prove causality. The impossibility of proving causality has been used very effectively by the tobacco industry, and other industries where hazardous substances have resulted in death, to defend themselves against litigation.
Some of the studies show such marked effects, however, that the authors stated that there was "a high probability of causality" or "causality was virtually certain". Below are a list of articles from respectable journals that approach the subject in a variety of ways. Note that some of them pull together evidence from many studies. Note also that some look at evidence that markers for nicotine are found in children exposed to passive smoking. If a child is absorbing nicotine from passive smoke he/she is also absorbing the 40 or so carcinogens present in cigarette smoke.
As with any exposure to hazardous substances it is highly probable that the level of exposure is critical. A nightclub worker who works in a closed environment where there is a high percentage of smokers present for many hours per day is going to be at higher risk than a farm worker who works in a field alongside another farm hand who smokes.
It is interesting that some smokers are happy to believe epidemiological evidence that alcohol causes adverse health effects but reject such evidence when it relates to smoking?
If you want "absolute" proof you can't have it. If people wish to ignore the preponderance of epidemiological evidence in order to support their life style choices that is of course their right.
Hackshaw, A.K., Law, M.R., Wald, N.J. (1997) The accumulated evidence on lung cancer and environmental tobacco smoke. British Medical Journal 315: 980-988.
He, J., Vupputuri S., Allen, K. et al. (1999)Passive smoking and the risk of coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies. New England Journal of Medicine 340: 920-926.
Hecht, S.S., Ye, M., Carmella, S.G. et al. (2001)Metabolites of a tobacco-specific lung carcinogen in the urine of elementary school-aged children. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention 10: 11, 1109-1116.
Jarvis, M., Goddard, E., Higgins, V. et al. (2001)Children's exposure to passive smoking in England since the 1980s: cotinine evidence from population surveys. British Medical Journal 321: 343-345.
Rapti, E., Jindal, S.K., Gupta, D., Boffetta, P. (1999)Passive smoking and lung cancer in Chandigarh, India. Lung Cancer 23: 3, 183-189.
Royal College of Physicians. (1992)Smoking and the Young. London: RCP.
Samet, J.M., Yang, G. (2001)Passive smoking, women and children. In: World Health Organization. Women and the Tobacco Epidemic. Geneva: WHO
US Department of Health and Human Services. (1986)The Health Consequences of Involuntary Smoking. A report of the US Surgeon General. Washington, DC: US DHSS.
US National Research Council. (1986)Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Measuring exposures and assessing health effects. Washington, DC: US National Research Council.
Zhong, L., Goldberg, MS., Gao, Y.T., Fin, F. (1999)A case-control study of lung cancer and environmental tobacco smoke among non-smoking women living in Shanghai, China. Cancer Causes Control 10: 6, 6-16.